Yoshinobu Ashihara, one of Japan's most celebrated architects, develops in this book a cross-cultural perspective on how people actually see and feel urban spaces. His study spans East and West, ranges from traditional villages of Japan; the Italian Apulia, and the Aegean to New York, Chandigarh, and Brasilia.Many of Ashihara's insights grow out of his reconciliation of positive-negative, yin-yang polarities. For example, he considers the demarcations between interior and exterior, private and public spaces in both Japanese and Western architecture and town planning, and the reversal of "figure" and "ground" in Italian piazzas. He also explores the differences between daytime and nighttime scenes, convex and concave shorelines, and the intimate, contained urban spaces associated with Medieval towns (and the outlook of Camillo Sitte) as distinguished from the grand, expansive spaces associated with Baroque cities (and the outlook of Le Corbusier). As might be expected from a writer whose architectural designs are as much concerned with the intimate details as with the broad strokes, Ashihara's theoretical considerations are rooted in actualities that foster practical applications. He introduces an objective measure of various kinds of urban spaces by calculating the ratio of street width and building height, and takes into account the influence of such realities as climate, culture, history, and childhood memories on the shaping of human habitats.The book is extensively illustrated with photographs of the sites discussed - street vistas, urban night scenes, squares, residential neighborhoods, landmark structures - and with maps, plans, and diagrams.
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The geometric shapes and solid structures had a significant influence on Le Corbusier in the thought and design of the building. This indicates that Le Corbusier uses basic and geometric shapes as functional philosophies of buildings. These basic and geometric shapes are also widely used in the contemporary architecture of Japan (Chang 1985; Meyhofer 1994). The use of primary and geometric shapes is a designation of natural form following the view of Lao Tze, such that the concept of architect Le Corbusier can be accepted by Japanese society. The Yin Yang concept of Lao Tze reveals the dark and light used by Yoshinobu Ashihara to express sacred buildings (Ashihara 1970). In a church, natural light on the altar is an expression of a sacred building, yet besides that, the natural light in a church symbolizes holy light (Trisno and Lianto 2018). The design of architect Louis Khan uses natural light to provide silence in space (Lobell 1979). Khan uses elements of the natural light in the form of light and dark in buildings, thereby indicating the influence of philosophy from Lao Tze so that this concept is favored by Japanese society.
Western culture such as Architect Bruno Zevi is organic architecture with an architectural design approach that is applied partially or as a whole to building design with the concept being based on natural forms or principles (Zevi 1993). Kengo Kuma in his design includes organic architecture, this is the same as Bruno Zevi and Frank Lloyd Wright. Kuma said the ideas embodied in these various projects have a lot in common with Japanese traditions. The building design is characterized by the use of natural light and natural materials (Kuma 2013). Kuma expressed his frustration with the concrete in Japanese buildings. Tadao Ando is aware of such criticism. Because Kuma's organic architecture creates a connection and encounter between humans and nature which is a point of warmth (nukumori), it is a combination of two qualities that are not in harmony so that a comfortable warmth is unique to Japanese aesthetics (Pulvers 2013). The harmony between humans and nature is a sublimation of Yin and Yang that comes from the philosophy of Lao Tze and Confucius.
Contemporary architectural transparency (understood as the optical property of the material) is constantly being redefined and, over the last decade, new design trends have developed related to transparent façades in architecture. Those trends are the result of dynamic technological progress and of the advancement in the field of materials science. Contemporary trends in architecture are generally rooted in philosophy and reflect the prevailing social moods and transparency is not an exception. 2b1af7f3a8