The General Topology Of Dynamical Systems Ethan Akin !LINK!

The General Topology Of Dynamical Systems Ethan Akin ---> __https://urlgoal.com/2t7kfu__

In mathematics, topological dynamics is a branch of the theory of dynamical systems in which qualitative, asymptotic properties of dynamical systems are studied from the viewpoint of general topology.

The central object of study in topological dynamics is a topological dynamical system, i.e. a topological space, together with a continuous transformation, a continuous flow, or more generally, a semigroup of continuous transformations of that space. The origins of topological dynamics lie in the study of asymptotic properties of trajectories of systems of autonomous ordinary differential equations, in particular, the behavior of limit sets and various manifestations of "repetitiveness" of the motion, such as periodic trajectories, recurrence and minimality, stability, non-wandering points. George Birkhoff is considered to be the founder of the field. A structure theorem for minimal distal flows proved by Hillel Furstenberg in the early 1960s inspired much work on classification of minimal flows. A lot of research in the 1970s and 1980s was devoted to topological dynamics of one-dimensional maps, in particular, piecewise linear self-maps of the interval and the circle.

The recently-developed temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) method [M. Sørensen and A.F. Voter, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 9599 (2000)] along with the more recently developed parallel TAD (parTAD) method [Y. Shim et al, Phys. Rev. B 76, 205439 (2007)] allow one to carry out non-equilibrium simulations over extended time and length scales. The basic idea behind TAD is to speed up transitions by carrying out a high-temperature MD simulation and then use the resulting information to obtain event times at the desired low temperature. In a typical implementation, a fixed high temperature Thigh is used. However, in general one expects that for each configuration there exists an optimal value of Thigh which depends on the particular transition pathways and activation energies for that configuration. Here we present a locally adaptive high-temperature TAD method in which instead of using a fixed Thigh the high temperature is dynamically adjusted in order to maximize simulation efficiency. Preliminary results of the performance obtained from parTAD simulations of Cu/Cu(100) growth using the locally adaptive Thigh method will also be presented.

We derive a 4D covariant Relativistic Dynamics Equation. This equation canonically extends the 3D relativistic dynamics equation , where F is the 3D force and p = m0γv is the 3D relativistic momentum. The standard 4D equation is only partially covariant. To achieve full Lorentz covariance, we replace the four-force F by a rank 2 antisymmetric tensor acting on the four-velocity. By taking this tensor to be constant, we obtain a covariant definition of uniformly accelerated motion. This solves a problem of Einstein and Planck. We compute explicit solutions for uniformly accelerated motion. The solutions are divided into four Lorentz-invariant types: null, linear, rotational, and general. For null acceleration, the worldline is cubic in the time. Linear acceleration covariantly extends 1D hyperbolic motion, while rotational acceleration covariantly extends pure rotational motion. We use Generalized Fermi-Walker transport to construct a uniformly accelerated family of inertial frames which are instantaneously comoving to a uniformly accelerated observer. We explain the connection between our approach and that of Mashhoon. We show that our solutions of uniformly accelerated motion have constant acceleration in the comoving frame. Assuming the Weak Hypothesis of Locality, we obtain local spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame K' to an inertial frame K. The spacetime transformations between two uniformly accelerated frames with the same acceleration are Lorentz. We compute the metric at an arbitrary point of a uniformly accelerated frame. We obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system K' to an inertial frame K. We introduce the 4D velocity, an adaptation of Horwitz and Piron s notion of "off-shell." We derive the general formula for the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We obtain a formula for the angular velocity of a uniformly accelerated object. Every rest point of K' is uniformly accelerated, and

Hu, Ruolin (2018)The effect of IELTS test preparation and repeated test taking on Chinese candidates' IELTS results, general proficiency and their subsequent academic attainment. PhD thesis, University of York. 2b1af7f3a8