Skin aging is also associated with progressive atrophy of the dermis and changes in the architectural organization leading to folds and wrinkles.25 Asian and black skin has thicker and more compact dermis than white skin, with the thickness being proportional to the degree of pigmentation.26 This likely contributes to the lower incidence of facial rhytides in Asians and blacks. In addition, darker skin types are thought to have more cornified cell layers and greater lipid content compared to white stratum corneum.27,28
The major cell type of the dermis is the fibroblast, which synthesizes the main structural elements of the dermis. Black skin has been found to have more numerous, larger, and more nucleated fibroblasts, smaller collagen fiber bundles, and more macrophages than white skin.29 Chronological aging reduces the life span of fibroblasts; their potential for division being lower in the elderly.25 Fibroblast functionality and reactivity likely contribute to both the aging phenomena and abnormal scarring.
Recorded after the assault by her then-boyfriend, Chris Brown, Rated R had a much darker tone and was filled with various emotions she experienced throughout 2009. In her fifth album Loud, Rihanna reflects on the fun and energetic vibe she had while recording the album. The album is a mixture of ballads, party anthems and empowering love songs. Talk That Talk was similar to Rated R, as both contain hip hop, R&B, dancehall and dubstep genres. Loud and Talk That Talk saw her explore sexuality in her work ("S&M" and "Birthday Cake") and return to her dancehall roots ("Man Down" and "Watch n' Learn"). She also branched out into house music with tracks like "We Found Love", "Only Girl (In the World)" and "Complicated". Her songs are also inspired through record sampling from other artists.
Many of her music videos were shot as short films exploring issues such as love triangles, abuse and substance abuse romance, including "We Found Love" and "Man Down". Her music video for "Umbrella" shows Rihanna's transition into adulthood and her newly adopted image. The "dark, creepy" scenes of "Disturbia" have been compared to Michael Jackson's Thriller. The video for "Russian Roulette" features Rihanna in a padded room playing a game of russian roulette with her partner. A scene of Rihanna being approached by a speeding car at night was compared to the altercation with Chris Brown.In 2011, Rihanna released three controversial music videos about sadomasochism, rape and domestic violence. "Man Down", which features Rihanna shooting a man in a train station, was criticized by the Parents Television Council. "We Found Love", which shows Rihanna and her love interest in a drug-filled unhealthy relationship, sparked criticism from the Rape Crisis Centre for its message. Charne Graham of the Houston Press defended her, asking, "Why should Rihanna's music videos get everyone riled up when others' equally sexual and controversial videos are in rotation? [...] she just like[s] to make music videos that give us something to talk about." Rihanna was the first woman to pass 2 billion cumulative views on the music video website Vevo. As of December 2016, she has accumulated over 10 billion views on the site.
Known for her style and image, the evolution of Rihanna's music and fashion sense have been constantly followed by the media. In 2009, New York magazine described Rihanna's early look as that of "a cookie-cutter teen queen", noting she has the ability "to shift looks dramatically and with such ease". Around the time of the release of her second studio album, A Girl like Me (2006), many critics felt that Rihanna's style, sound and musical material were too similar to those of Beyoncé. In an interview with Look magazine, Rihanna spoke about comparisons to Beyoncé: "Beyoncé is a great artist and I feel honored to be mentioned in the same sentence, but we're different performers with different styles". She revealed during Oprah's Next Chapter that Def Jam's pop-princess blueprint made her feel claustrophobic during her early years with the label. According to Rihanna, "I felt like they were giving me a blueprint. [...] They had a brand, they had an idea of what they wanted me to be without figuring out who I was." With the release of her third album, Good Girl Gone Bad (2007), Rihanna dismissed her innocent image for an edgier look with a new hairstyle, which was inspired by Charlize Theron's bob cut in the science fiction thriller Æon Flux (2005). She followed the likes of recording artists Janet Jackson and Christina Aguilera who also shed their innocent image for an edgier look and sound.
A Blu-ray version of the film was released April 21, 2009. Unlike the laserdisc release, the Blu-ray version includes no special features. The laserdisc release included commentary, documentaries and alternative endings not included in the Blu-ray or DVD releases.
DISPATCH -- Below from co-producer Marcela Gaviria (1/20/10) The nights of Port-au-Prince are pitch black, yet filled by a cacophony of sounds. After sunset, you can hear the sound of thousands of refugees singing hymns as they lull themselves to sleep on the debris and trash strewn streets. As the night sets deep, the sounds of howling dogs and C-130s, landing and taking off, takes over. Aunt Fifi's home in Delmas 5, our modest base which sits perched above the airport, rattles every time a plane flies overhead. But then this morning at 6:03 am, just at sunrise, when the sound of hooting owls and crowing roosters was picking up, the earth growled -- and then our house rattled. The perfume bottles on the crowded dresser drawer clinked together, the windows shook, and in a matter of seconds, everybody in the house was bolting towards the courtyard. There have been over sixty aftershocks since the earthquake hit Leogande January 12th. But this one registered 5.9. Another earthquake -- a small one. The epicenter over 30 kilometers away. At a makeshift camp just down the hill, scores of refugees panicked. Their cries carried up the street. My housemates, two Haitian brothers whom I know from New York, a photographer, and a group of young nurses from Orlando, Florida, wondered if the wall next to us would withstand another tremor. A few miles away, in the upscale neighborhood of Petionville, a Portuguese journalist was so startled by the quake, he jumped out his second floor window. I learned that hours later from a nurse at the University Hospital near Champs du Mars. Nurse Betty told me he was the first journalist to be evacuated from Haiti. He's now being treated on the USS Comfort which sits just off Haitian shores. At the University Hospital, the quake caused another sort of panic. Fearing that the already unstable main building would collapse, hundreds of patients were moved to the outside courtyard. Now, every inch of open space is cramped with rickety beds, soiled mattresses and provisional cots. It's a sea of amputees, bandages steeped with yellow pus. Flies and trash everywhere. And yet there is little moaning. These patients have survived a quake, have withstood being trapped under rubble for hours, days. They've lost loved ones. One patient says of his stump, "C'est la vie." The inner courtyard is shaded by a few large oak and mango trees. Sheets have been tied together to provide some shade. There is a woman trying to breast feed her newborn baby. An old man with soiled underwear. A teenager with silk pink pajamas stained with pus from her amputation at the shoulder. A young boy, stares at his bleeding stump. A man comforts his baby girl who has lost both her legs. A woman taps me on the shoulder. She implores me in Creole to find some help. Her son has already lost his leg above the knee. His other leg is swelling up, the skin parting. Another amputation imminent. The number of patients grows by the hour. Cars arrive with victims that feared losing their limbs if they sought medical care. But they come now. They know gangrene and septicemia can take their lives. As cars zoom up the driveway, recently operated patients lying on the entrance, lean in, to avoid being grazed by the cars. And today, eleven days after the earthquake, an 86-year-old woman has been pulled out of the rubble. She is sunken, all bones, barely breathing. Hundreds of flies, as if they could smell death, hover close. A nurse must clean the maggots off her private parts to place a foley catheter. The old woman will be flown to USS Comfort. The nurse treating her, a young Haitian woman called RN Gardine, says "The doctor says she won't make it. But who knows? She fought this long. " The courtyard is swarming with Scientologists, flown in by John Travolta. They all wear bright yellow shirts that read "Something can be done about it." They take pictures of the wounded and of each other. A young man documents their every move with a Sony Camcorder. They talk to the patients in English, and get responses in Creole. They hand out literature in French. "How to clean your wound," By L. Ron Hubbard. I ask a young woman with blonde hair and a nose job if they are trained for this. "We aren't, but we'll help with anything." I ask her what her mission is. "To provide grief counseling," she says. Walter, a trained paramedic with the New York City Fire Department, has been flown into Haiti by the Scientologists. "I'm no Scientologist" he tells me. "But this place seriously needs some help." He intends to check every patients vitals, make sure nobody is spiking a fever, but first he must clean all the trash. The place is more refugee camp than hospital. "These people worry that the hospital will fall on top of them," Walter tells me, "But they are more likely to die from a secondary infections spreading out here, than from being crushed by a wall." Further up the walkway, the wounds are more gaping, the pain more severe. Surgeons from Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York inspect stumps. Many are wide open -- flesh, bone, tendons exposed. Dr. Alice, from Dartmouth, tells me that if infection is present, they can't suture the stump. "The infection has to drain and the dead tissue has been cleaned up before we can sew them back up." Dr. Alice has been here for seven days. She tells me that at first there wasn't enough painkillers or antibiotics. "But it's getting better. We have most of the supplies we need," she says. Later, a doctor from Mt. Sinai comes out of the operating room and confides they've run out of alcohol to sterilize the equipment. "The operating room has come to a full stop. We need the alcohol." The closer you get to the operating room, the more gruesome the scene. I'm too squeamish to go further. I can hear the scream. Right next to the operating room is a tent, the equivalent of an Intensive Care Unit. A woman, with breasts exposed, foams at the mouth. An elderly man, forced to lay in the sun, moans. A beautiful young boy asks the doctor if he will ever play soccer. A young woman, paralyzed from the neck down, is flanked by a grieving family. Everyone else seems to be fast asleep, or dying. There is one man, frail, sunken, exhausted, that looks like he is seconds from being dead. His breath is shallow, almost irregular. He is covered in flies. Two days later we return to the hospital. I am convinced that many have died since. But there is evident progress. The hospital entryway is no longer overflowing with patients. Tents have been erected, resembling more of a MASH unit than a makeshift camp. Several patients have been dismissed. And yes, a handful or so, have died. The frail, sunken man, covered in flies, is one of them. His body was stacked in the overflowing morgue. Until someone noticed his leg twitching. He was brought back from the dead. He now lies peacefully on a soiled cot. Flies no longer cover his torso. He breathes easily. The doctor now calls him "Black Jesus." 2b1af7f3a8