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The ISSN is an established international standard that uniquely identifies serial publications. The number is preceded by the uppercase letters ISSN followed by a space then two blocks of four numbers separated by a hyphen. The final digit is a check digit which enables a computer to recognise when the number is incorrectly cited. The check digit may be an X, otherwise the ISSN is fully numeric.
A continuing resource in any medium, issued in a succession of discrete parts [and having a common title], usually bearing numbering, that has no predetermined conclusion. Examples of serials include journals, magazines, electronic journals, ongoing directories, annual reports, newspapers, and monographic series.
Different editions of serials must have separate ISSN. This applies to different language editions, regional editions and different formats (e.g. CD-ROM, online and print versions of a journal title have separate numbers). However ISSN are not assigned to online resources consisting predominantly of links, nor individual or company home pages including Weblogs.
When separate ISSN are assigned for different physical formats of a serial, a linking ISSN (ISSN-L) is designated from one of these ISSN. ISSN should not be assigned to: one-off publications, magazine specials, newspaper specials, finite publications, serials not intended for general circulation, calendars, diaries, posters or magazine packs. Depending on the resource, an ISBN or an article number from GS1 UK may be a more appropriate identifier for such publications.
When the barcoding system was set up for serials, it was realised that the ISSN as a unique identifying number for the title could be used as part of the barcode to identify the serial. The ISSN is therefore the title identifier element in the barcode. An ISSN is not affected by a change in price, frequency or size of a serial.
ISBN should not be assigned to specific issues of serials or any title published more than once a year. The stem of the ISBN identifies the publisher whereas the ISSN contains no publisher identifier. The ISSN is a number that remains linked to the serial even when the responsibility for the serial passes from one publisher to another.
The ISSN network consists of national centres worldwide who are responsible for assigning ISSN to serials published in their own countries. The system is co-ordinated by the ISSN International Centre in Paris who also takes responsibility for assigning numbers to serials published in countries that do not have their own ISSN National Centre and to serials published by International Organisations. The ISSN UK Centre, which is part of the British Library, is responsible for assigning ISSN to serials published in the United Kingdom. Serials published elsewhere should obtain an ISSN from the appropriate national centre or the International Centre. This is regardless of whether or not they are distributed in the UK.
Interleukins (IL) are a type of cytokine first thought to be expressed by leukocytes alone but have later been found to be produced by many other body cells. They play essential roles in the activation and differentiation of immune cells, as well as proliferation, maturation, migration, and adhesion. They also have pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. The primary function of interleukins is, therefore, to modulate growth, differentiation, and activation during inflammatory and immune responses. Interleukins consist of a large group of proteins that can elicit many reactions in cells and tissues by binding to high-affinity receptors in cell surfaces. They have both paracrine and autocrine function. Interleukins are also used in animal studies to investigate aspect related to clinical medicine.
Can a publisher have both an ISBN & an ISSN? Both numbering systems are used for books in a series and with annuals or biennials. The ISBN identifies the individual book in a series or a specific year for an annual or biennial. The ISSN identifies the ongoing series, or the ongoing annual or biennial serial. If a publication has both, each should be printed on the copyright page. 2b1af7f3a8