Allen Downey is an American computer scientist, Professor of Computer Science at the Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering and writer of free textbooks. Downey received in 1989 his BS and in 1990 his MA, both in Civil Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and his PhD in Computer Science from the University of California at Berkeley in 1997. He started his career as Research Fellow in the San Diego Supercomputer Center in 1995. In 1997 he became Assistant Professor of Computer Science at Colby College, and in 2000 at Wellesley College. He was Research Fellow at Boston University in 2002 and Professor of Computer Science at the Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering since 2003. In 2009-2010 he was also Visiting Scientist at Google Inc.
However, decades before this definition, the birth of the artificial intelligence conversation was denoted by Alan Turing's seminal work, "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" (PDF, 89.8 KB) (link resides outside of IBM), which was published in 1950. In this paper, Turing, often referred to as the "father of computer science", asks the following question, "Can machines think?" From there, he offers a test, now famously known as the "Turing Test", where a human interrogator would try to distinguish between a computer and human text response. While this test has undergone much scrutiny since its publish, it remains an important part of the history of AI as well as an ongoing concept within philosophy as it utilizes ideas around linguistics.
Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig then proceeded to publish, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (link resides outside IBM), becoming one of the leading textbooks in the study of AI. In it, they delve into four potential goals or definitions of AI, which differentiates computer systems on the basis of rationality and thinking vs. acting:
Recent progress in artificial intelligence has renewed interest in building systems that learn and think like people. Many advances have come from using deep neural networks trained end-to-end in tasks such as object recognition, video games, and board games, achieving performance that equals or even beats that of humans in some respects. Despite their biological inspiration and performance achievements, these systems differ from human intelligence in crucial ways. We review progress in cognitive science suggesting that truly human-like learning and thinking machines will have to reach beyond current engineering trends in both what they learn and how they learn it. Specifically, we argue that these machines should (1) build causal models of the world that support explanation and understanding, rather than merely solving pattern recognition problems; (2) ground learning in intuitive theories of physics and psychology to support and enrich the knowledge that is learned; and (3) harness compositionality and learning-to-learn to rapidly acquire and generalize knowledge to new tasks and situations. We suggest concrete challenges and promising routes toward these goals that can combine the strengths of recent neural network advances with more structured cognitive models.
AP Computer Science A is an introductory college-level computer science course. Students cultivate their understanding of coding through analyzing, writing, and testing code as they explore concepts like modularity, variables, and control structures.
Systems thinking has largely developed as a field of inquiry and practice in the 20th century, and has multiple origins in disciplines as varied as biology, anthropology, physics, psychology, mathematics, management, and computer science. The term is associated with a wide variety of scientists, including the biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy who developed General System Theory; psychiatrist Ross Ashby and anthropologist Gregory Bateson who pioneered the field of cybernetics; Jay Forrester, a computer engineer who launched the field of systems dynamics; scientists at the Santa Fe Institute, such as Noble Laureates Murray Gell-Mann and Kenneth Arrow, who have helped define complex adaptive systems ; and a wide variety of management thinkers, including Russell Ackoff, a pioneer in operations research, and Peter Senge, who has popularized the learning organization. Much of the work in systems thinking has involved bringing together scientists from many disciplinary traditions, in many cases allowing them to transfer methods from one discipline to another (inter-disciplinarity), or to work across and between disciplinary boundaries, creating learning through a wide variety of stakeholders, including researchers and those affected by the research (trans-disciplinarity).
PDF files can be read on almost all devices, but you cannot read them on all eReaders. They are not designed to be displayed on an eBook reader. They are designed for big screens like a desktop computer or a laptop.
Invented by Adobe Systems, and first released in 1993, PDF became ISO 32000 in 2008. The format was developed to provide a platform-independent means of exchanging fixed-layout documents. Derived from PostScript, but without language features like loops, PDF adds support for features such as compression, passwords, semantic structures and DRM. Because PDF documents can easily be viewed and printed by users on a variety of computer platforms, they are very common on the World Wide Web and in document management systems worldwide. The current PDF specification, ISO 32000-1:2008, is available from ISO's website, and under special arrangement, without charge from Adobe.
(i) Use the Product or any portion thereof for any purpose other than as specifically set forth in this License Agreement;(ii) Identify records or calculate HEDIS measure results using the Product;(iii) Distribute, sublicense or copy the Product in any format, including, but not limited to, other print or electronic publication service or product (except that Licensee may make one  copy for each Licensed User for which Licensee has purchased a license to use the Product);(iv) Decompile, disassemble the Product, analyze or otherwise examine the Product for the purpose of reverse engineering;(v) Delete or in any manner alter any notices, disclaimers or other legends contained in the Product or appearing on any screens, documents or other materials obtained through use of the Product;(vi) Provide service bureau facilities or commercial time-sharing services to any third party or supporting operations for any third party through access and/or use of the Product;(vii) Reproduce, republish, upload, post, transmit or distribute the Product, or any portion thereof, or facilitate or permit any third party to do so;(viii) Modify or prepare derivative works from the Product;(ix) Use any device or software to interfere or attempt to interfere with the proper operation of the Product;(x) Ship, transmit, transfer or export the Product into any country or use the Product in any manner prohibited by United States export laws, restrictions or regulations;(xi) Transmit the Product electronically or allow access to the Product over a network or a public computer-based information system which permits access to a greater number of users than licensed by Licensee;(xii) Use the Product in multiple computer or multiple user arrangements unless that use is covered by a separate license for each computer or user; or(xiii) Rent, lease, or distribute or otherwise transfer possession of any copy of the Product to any third party.
When starting from scratch, reviewing the literature can require a titanic amount of work. That is why researchers who have spent their career working on a certain research issue are in a perfect position to review that literature. Some graduate schools are now offering courses in reviewing the literature, given that most research students start their project by producing an overview of what has already been done on their research issue . However, it is likely that most scientists have not thought in detail about how to approach and carry out a literature review.
Create a structure by using numbered headings in a logical structure. For other tagged structures, specify their content with the epub:type attribute. For example, the tag that contains the preface of a book might look like . Specific tags are for specific content only (i.e., the tag is only for citations) and should be used according to the standard. Use the most specific tag available and do not automatically wrap or tags around everything.
Medical devices are increasingly connected to the Internet, hospital networks, and other medical devices to provide features that improve health care and increase the ability of health care providers to treat patients. These same features also increase potential cybersecurity risks. Medical devices, like other computer systems, can be vulnerable to security breaches, potentially impacting the safety and effectiveness of the device. 2b1af7f3a8